Los investigadores argumentan que si quieren que los cultivos ilícitos en los bosques nacionales de los Estados Unidos desaparezcan, se debe legalizar el cannabis en todo el país.

Las conversaciones sobre los efectos de la legalización del cannabis a menudo se centran en algunas cuestiones claves: oportunidad económica, justicia social, el potencial de nuevos tratamientos médicos y otros beneficios para la salud. 

Sin embargo, de lo que se habla menos es cómo la legalización del cannabis afecta el medio ambiente. Los investigadores han documentado durante mucho tiempo las formas en que el cultivo de cannabis en exteriores sin control puede afectar los recursos e impactar negativamente al medio ambiente. Y los datos del Departamento de Justicia de los Estados Unidos muestran que una cantidad significativa de cannabis producida ilegalmente se cultiva en tierras federales, especialmente en bosques nacionales.

Entonces ¿la legalización está haciendo alguna una diferencia? Esa es exactamente la pregunta que un estudio nuevo, primero en su clase, se propuso responder. ¿Las políticas relacionadas con el cannabis tienen algún efecto en las operaciones de cultivo ilícito en los bosques nacionales de los Estados Unidos? La respuesta parece ser que sí, la legalización tiene un gran impacto. De hecho, reduce significativamente su crecimiento.

La expansión de la legalización reduce el crecimiento ilícito en los bosques nacionales en una quinta parte o más, concluye el estudio.

A medida que la industria legal del cannabis en los Estados Unidos se expande, la demanda de productos de cannabis crece. Pero en el mercado estadounidense, la oferta y la demanda aún tienen que encontrar su equilibrio. Entonces, a pesar de los grandes cambios en la producción y el consumo de cannabis legal durante la última década, el mercado ilícito no regulado aún domina. En 2018, los expertos estimaron que las ventas legales representaron más de $ 10 mil millones del total de $ 50 mil millones en ventas de cannabis ese año. En pocas palabras, el mercado ilícito de marihuana no desaparecerá pronto, al menos a corto plazo.

Por supuesto, abastecer a ese mercado requiere un número significativo de operaciones de cultivo ilícitas. Y sobre la base de los datos sobre las incautaciones de las autoridades policiales en las plantas cultivadas en el exterior, los bosques nacionales parecen ser los bienes raíces principales para los cultivadores sin licencia. Los crecimientos ilícitos en Oregon, Colorado y California alimentan la mayor parte del suministro del mercado ilegal. Los bosques nacionales cubren el 24 por ciento de la tierra en Oregon y el 21 por ciento en Colorado. California tiene más bosques nacionales, 20, que cualquier otro estado. No por casualidad, los cultivos ilícitos son muy frecuentes en los bosques nacionales de esos estados (y otros estados legales de cannabis) a pesar de sus cambios hacia la producción comercial regulada.

Sin embargo, incluso en un entorno económico que continúa incentivando el cultivo ilícito, la legalización está reduciendo el número de cultivos en los bosques nacionales. “La legalización recreativa del cannabis se asocia con una disminución en los informes de operaciones de cultivo ilegal en bosques nacionales”, según la “legalización del cannabis por parte de los estados reduce el crecimiento ilegal en los bosques nacionales de EE. UU.”, Un estudio que se acaba de publicar en Ecological Economics. Y esas son buenas noticias, no solo para la industria legal, sino también para la flora y fauna de los bosques de Estados Unidos.

Dos formas de reducir los cultivos ilícitos en los bosques nacionales: legalización o encarcelamiento.

Hay mucha información que documenta la escala y el alcance del cannabis ilícito que se cultiva en los bosques nacionales de los Estados Unidos. Pero no se ha publicado ninguna investigación empírica sobre cómo los cambios en la política de cannabis y los esfuerzos de aplicación de la ley están afectando el cultivo ilícito.

Para abordar esa brecha, los investigadores del Servicio Forestal del USDA recopilaron datos sobre el número de sitios de cultivo informados en 111 bosques nacionales entre 2004 y 2016. Luego, analizaron esos datos junto con los cambios en las leyes estatales de cannabis. Los investigadores también utilizaron su conjunto de datos para ejecutar simulaciones que les permitieran probar cómo los diferentes escenarios de políticas impactarían en los bosques nacionales. Así que además de probar cómo crece la legalización recreativa reportada, los investigadores también simularon cambios en los códigos impositivos del cannabis e incluso cambios en la aplicación de la ley. Esto es lo que encontraron.

En primer lugar, la legalización recreativa redujo significativamente el número de crecimientos ilícitos reportados en los bosques nacionales.

Del mismo modo, en una eliminación simulada de la legalización en todos los estados, el estudio estimó que el crecimiento ilícito aumentaría en porcentajes de dos dígitos. Por el contrario, los investigadores encontraron que la expansión simulada de la legalización reduciría el crecimiento en los bosques nacionales en una quinta parte o más. Además, la mayor parte de esa reducción ocurriría en California. Yendo más allá y simulando una legalización nacional del cannabis, el estudio estimó que el crecimiento de los bosques nacionales ilícitos podría reducirse a la mitad y finalmente eliminarse.

Pero las investigaciones también realizaron pruebas desde la dirección opuesta. En lugar de legalización, simularon aumentos a la presencia de la ley. Y aunque encontraron que aumentar la aplicación de la ley también reduciría los crecimientos ilícitos reportados, las ganancias fueron significativamente menores en comparación con la legalización. Por ejemplo, si los presupuestos de las fuerzas del orden público y los cargos de oficiales se duplicaran de sus números actuales, el crecimiento de los bosques nacionales ilícitos disminuiría en un 10 por ciento, como máximo.

Los impuestos al cannabis contribuyen al crecimiento ilícito en los bosques nacionales

Sobre la base de su análisis estadístico, los autores del estudio muestran que la legalización tendría un efecto mucho más positivo en la reducción del crecimiento ilícito que un aumento masivo en los gastos de aplicación de la ley. “Podría decirse que nuestros modelos insinúan que la legalización nacional del cannabis recreativo sería uno de los medios por los cuales el crecimiento ilegal en los bosques nacionales podría desaparecer”.

Pero aparte de los cambios en las políticas y la oferta y la demanda mejor calibradas, los investigadores también probaron cómo los impuestos al cannabis están afectando el crecimiento ilegal en los bosques nacionales. Y encontraron que los impuestos realmente están contribuyendo a esos crecimientos. “La imposición de impuestos a las ventas legales de cannabis […] parece hacer que el cannabis ilegal sea cada vez más frecuente en los bosques nacionales”, encontró el estudio. En otras palabras, siempre que el precio después de impuestos para el cannabis legal sea más alto que para los productos ilícitos, imponer impuestos al cannabis fomentará el cultivo ilícito.

La legalización del cannabis puede proteger los bosques nacionales

Los hallazgos del estudio son significativos por varias razones. Pero el potencial de la legalización para proteger los bosques nacionales es clave. El uso no regulado de pesticidas y fertilizantes, la tala, la colocación de terrazas y la caza furtiva de la vida silvestre por parte de los trabajadores de los sitios de cultivo crean daños ambientales reales y duraderos. Por lo tanto, reducir el crecimiento de bosques ilícitos es una victoria no solo para el medio ambiente. También es una victoria para todos los que visitan, gestionan y finalmente disfrutan de los bosques.

The post Un estudio encuentra que el cannabis legal reduce el cultivo ilícito en los bosques nacionales appeared first on High Times.

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1. What is CBD? What is CBD Oil?

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring constituent of industrial hemp/cannabis. Its formula is C21H30O2 and it has a molecular mass of 314.4636. It is the most abundant non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis, and is being scientifically investigated for various reasons.

CBD oil is a cannabis oil (whether derived from marijuana or industrial hemp, as the word cannabis is the latin genus name for both) that has significant amounts of cannabidiol (CBD) contained within it. Our CBD products and extracts are derived from industrial hemp, so they could be considered CBD-rich hemp oil, hemp derived CBD oil, CBD-rich cannabis oil, or plainly “hemp extracts” since they typically contain much more than just CBD. Again, cannabis doesn’t mean marijuana, but is the genus name, and general umbrella term which all forms of marijuana and hemp fall under. The form of cannabis we use for our CBD and hemp extracts is industrial hemp; we do not sell marijuana.

2. If a hemp extract is 40% cannabinoids, what’s the other 60%? What’s in your hemp extracts besides the naturally occurring cannabinoids?

Our Kentucky hemp extracts contain over 80 different phyto-cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD), CBC, CBG, CBN, etc.. In addition to the cannabinoids naturally present in our agricultural hemp extracts, there are also many other types of natural molecules and phyto-chemical compounds such as amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins (including B1, B2, B6, D), fatty acids (including omega 3 & 6), trace minerals (including iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium, potassium), beta-carotene, chlorophyll, flavanoids, ketones, nitrogenous compounds, alkanes, glycosides, pigments, water, and terpenes. The most common terpenes in our hemp extracts are Myrcene, Beta-caryophyllene, Terpinolene, Linalool, alpha-Pinene, beta-Pinene, Nerolidol og Phytol, trans-alpha-Bergamotene, Limonene/ beta-Phellandrene (Co-elution), and alpha-Humulene.

3. What’s the difference between Hemp and Marijuana?

Scientifically, industrial Hemp and Marijuana are the same plant, with a genus and species name of Cannabis Sativa. They have a drastically different genetic profile though. Industrial Hemp is always a strain of Cannabis sativa, while marijuana can be Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, or Cannabis ruderalis. The major difference is how industrial hemp has been bred compared to a marijuana form of Cannabis sativa. organic hemp seedsTypically speaking, industrial hemp is very fibrous, with long strong stalks, and barely has any flowering buds, while a marijuana strain of Cannabis sativa will be smaller, bushier, and full of flowering buds. However, newer industrial hemp varieties in the USA are being bred to have more flowers and higher yields of cannabinoids and terpenes, such as our Kentucky hemp we’re now using!

99% of the time marijuana has a high amount of THC and only a very low amount of CBD. Hemp, on the other hand, naturally has a very high amount of CBD in most instances, and only a trace amount of THC. Fortunately, the cannabinoid profile of hemp is ideal for people looking for benefits from cannabis without the ‘high.’ Hemp is used for making herbal supplements, food, fiber, rope, paper, bricks, oil, natural plastic, and so much more, whereas marijuana is usually used just recreationally, spiritually, and medicinally. The term cannabis oil can refer to either a marijuana or hemp derived oil, since marijuana and hemp are two different forms of cannabis.

In the USA the legal definition of “industrial hemp,” per Section 7606 of the Agricultural Appropriations Act of 2014, is “INDUSTRIAL HEMP — The term ‘‘industrial hemp’’ means the plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of such plant, whether growing or not, with a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis.”

4. Are hemp derived cannabinoids such as CBD as good as CBD from marijuana?

The short answer is yes. CBD is CBD, whether from marijuana or hemp. Most marijuana has a very low non-psychoactive cannabinoid profile (like CBD, CBC, CBG), so most of the time hemp would be much more preferable for anything besides THC. Marijuana is usually very high in THC (gives people the high) but usually very low in other non-psychoactive cannabinoids.

Nowadays in the USA, many farmers are growing industrial hemp flowers that are just as beautiful, odor-producing, and terpene rich as the best marijuana strains, such as our partnered farmers in Kentucky.

5. Why don’t you source your Hemp and CBD from within Colorado?

colorado growing operationWe feel that the hemp program in Kentucky is more well suited for our company in regards to growing hemp, and that because it’s 100% compliant with Section 7606 of the 2014 Farm Bill (and the 2016 Agricultural Appropriations Act), procuring it from there is perfectly legal at the federal level. Kentucky’s ecology is perfect for hemp just as it is for tobacco. The growing season is longer than in Colorado, and the soil is richer, so the quality of the hemp and the yields are better.

6. What’s the percentage of cannabinoids and CBD in your product?

Our raw extracts have varying percentages of cannabinoid and cannabidiol (CBD) content, the range being 10%-99%. Each product has a unique formulation and uses varying ratios of our extract types. Our CBD Isolate is over 99% pure CBD.

7. What is the best method of use?

For our dietary supplements we can only recommend them for internal consumption. Our CBD isolate is for research purposes only. If you don’t like the flavor of the oil supplements, you can mix with something sweet like apple sauce or honey to cut through the flavor.

8. What’s the ideal serving size for me, and how often should I take it?

There is no easy answer to this. Our starting recommended serving size is 15 drops but we generally recommend experimenting to see what feels best to you. Some prefer 5 drops, some prefer over 50 drops per day.

9. What is the safety of your hemp extracts? Are there negative side effects?

Hemp is considered by many to be generally safe. We’ve never seen or heard of any significant or negative CBD Oil Extractside effects in our years in the industry. That said, we can’t rule them out. Please consult with your physician before using any dietary supplement including Hemp extract supplements.

10. Which of your CBD and hemp products should I get?

As a company who sells various dietary and food supplements, we can’t suggest any of our products for the prevention, treatment or cure of any disease or ailment.

When considering our different dietary hemp products, know that they all come in two strengths. Our Original Hemp blends (Classic Hemp Blend, Hemp Complete, Brainpower oil, & Signature Blend) all have 250+mg of cannabinoids per fluid ounce, and our concentrated blends have 1,500+mg per fluid ounce, six times the potency of our traditional oils. We’ve found that sometimes less is more, but nevertheless, some people like to take very large serving sizes of our hemp extracts.

The main difference between the four Original Blends is the additional herbal ingredients besides hemp. We suggest you research the separate components of each blend to determine which product may be most appealing to add to your dietary regimen. If you know it’s solely the hemp extract that you are looking for, with no additional ingredients, then Classic Hemp Blend or Classic Hemp 6x is what you’re looking for.

For dabbing and vaporizing or for research you can try our CBD Isolate.

THOSE WHO SUSPECT THEY MAY HAVE A DISEASE OR ARE SEEKING HELP FOR A DISEASE SHOULD CONSULT A QUALIFIED MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL.

11. Why do people use Hemp Extracts and CBD? What are the benefits and uses of CBD?

In accordance with federal regulations we cannot make health claims regarding our dietary supplement products. We can only recommend our products for general wellness.

12. Is a standard hemp seed oil the same as a high-CBD hemp extract?

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Hemp Oil For Dogs

Absolutely not. Standard hemp oil, which can be found very cheaply at a grocery store, is a much different product than our CO2 hemp extracts (not from seed). Standard hemp oil is produced by cold pressing the seeds, whereas our hemp extract is a supercritical CO2 extraction of the hemp plant itself, not the seeds. Hemp seed oil is considered to be a great nutritive food, but it doesn’t have the naturally occurring terpenes, cannabinoids and other components that our extracts do have.

13. Do I need to move to Colorado to get your Hemp Extracts and CBD? Where do you ship?

No. We actually source our hemp from Kentucky, as it’s legal to ship across state lines. Many people are under the impression that the only way to acquire hemp extracts and CBD for themselves or a loved one is to move to Colorado or another cannabis-friendly state. Many major news outlets are misinformed and are unfortunately spreading the idea that you can only get CBD oil in the states where medical marijuana has been legalized. This is simply not the case though. Because our extracts comes from hemp instead of marijuana, we can and do ship to all fifty states, and no medical marijuana card is needed. There are some exceptions, like with Indiana, Missouri and South Dakota we can’t sell our concentrated products due to state legislation.

We also ship to Japan, Australia, the EU, Switzerland, and Brazil. For all EU orders contact our exclusive distributor thereCannawell.

14. Is your Hemp Extract Oil similar to Rick Simpson Hemp Oil?

Not quite. Ours are from hemp and RSHO is usually using marijuana, a different form of cannabis than industrial hemp. Our industrial hemp extracts are more standardized and will usually have a much higher content of non-psychoactive cannabinoids like CBD than one produced through the Rick Simpson method. And oils produced through his method will usually have a much higher THC content, as it’s typically marijuana that is used for RSHO.†

Generally speaking, most marijuana producers and sellers (especially on the black market) don’t test for contaminants (metals, pesticides, bacteria, etc.). Rick Simpson Hemp Oil is actually more a method of extraction than it is a specific product. People use the Rick Simpson method with hundreds of different strains of marijuana, so the THC, CBD and other cannabinoid content of the final oil is always varying greatly, depending on the cannabis the consumers are acquiring. Usually what’s used for Rick Simpson oil is a strain with an inferior CBD content (and high THC), because that’s what the vast amount of marijuana is nowadays.

15. Where do you source your hemp and CBD from?

We have partners in Kentucky who grew a dedicated plot for us this year (2016) which is being used in our products now. mjna message boardWe also currently source from Europe but we’ll be changing that soon.

16. What kind of testing/analysis is performed on your products?

We have an industry leading quality control system, and we have third party laboratories analyze all of our hemp extracts and our final products for cannabinoid potency, heavy metals, bacterial and microbial life, mycotoxins (fungus), and pesticides.

17. What is CO2 extraction? What’s the difference between subcritical and supercritical CO2 extractions?

CO2 extraction is an extraction process that uses pressurized carbon dioxide to extract phyto-chemicals (such as CBD, CBG, or terpenes, flavonoids, etc.) from a plant. CO2 at certain temperatures and pressures acts like a solvent, without the dangers of actually being one. It is the most expensive extraction method, and is widely considered the most effective and safest plant extraction method in the world.

Many hemp and CBD companies boast about their supercritical CO2 extractions, but that’s actually only one (and perhaps an inferior) method of using a CO2 extraction machine. There are also subcritical CO2 extractions, and ‘mid-critical’, a general range between subcritical and supercritical. Subcritical (low temp, low pressure) CO2 extractions take more time and produce smaller yields than super-critical, but they retain the essential oils, terpenes, and other sensitive chemicals within the plant. Supercritical, on the other hand, is a high pressure and high temperature process that damages most terpenes and heat sensitive chemicals, but can extract much larger molecules such as lipids (omega 3 and 6), chlorophyll, and waxes. A truly full-spectrum CO2 extract includes first performing a subcritical extraction, separating the extracted oil, and then extracting the same plant material using supercritical pressure, and then homogenizing both oil extracts into one. In the essential oil industry, an extract made using this specific process is referred to as a CO2 Total.

18. What is the endocannabinoid system (ECS)?

“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a group of endogenous cannabinoid receptors located in the mammalian brain and throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems, consisting of neuromodulatory lipids and their receptors.” Wikipedia

There are two main types of receptors in the ECS, CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors are primarily located in the central nervous system and brains of mammals, and CB2 are generally found in the peripheral nervous system. There are two main cannabinoids mammals produce- 2AG and Anandamide (named after the Sanskrit term “ananda” which translates to “peace”).

For hundreds of millions of years every vertebrate on Earth has been equipped with this ECS, a crucial system in the body, and it has been known about in the scientific and medical communities since the 1980’s. However, it’s still not taught about in most medical schools.

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