The post Satanic Music, Minorities and Sex: The Early Days of Cannabis Prohibition appeared first on High Times.
The early days of cannabis prohibition were nothing if not a whirlwind. Although certain states had already started to place restrictions on cannabis, it was nothing compared to the beginning of the nation-wide campaign against the plant. Largely due to the relentlessness of Harry Anslinger, the United States placed a federal ban on cannabis. Today, we have new information and scientific evidence demonstrating the efficacy of cannabis as a medicine and the mostly harmless nature of it as a recreational substance. But we’re still feeling the ramifications of Anslinger’s anti-pot agenda. Here are some highlights from the early days of cannabis prohibition.
Commonly referred to as the “Father of Cannabis Prohibition,” Harry Anslinger’s official job title was Commissioner of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics. He was the first person to hold that position.
Born in 1892 to immigrant parents, Anslinger began his career as an investigator for the Pennsylvania Railroad. For 10 years, he linked up with the police and military to combat international drug trafficking. Because he primarily worked with the Treasury Department, illegal drug and alcohol trafficking had a purely financial focus—not one based on morals or social issues.
In 1929, Anslinger started working as the assistant commissioner of the Treasury’s Bureau of Prohibition. But then, in 1930, he got the promotion of a lifetime. His wife’s uncle, Andrew W. Mellon, appointed him as the first-ever commissioner of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics.
At this point in the country’s history, cannabis restrictions were already starting to be enacted in a few states. Interestingly enough, when he started his new job, Anslinger had no problem, moral or otherwise, with cannabis. According to sources, he even said that cannabis—then called “Indian Hemp”—wasn’t harmful and didn’t cause users to behave violently.
Then the prohibition of alcohol ended.
Anslinger changed his tune. He began to spread false reports of cannabis-induced madness, violence and crime.
Using the powers of the mass media, he got the American public on his side by releasing what was dubbed “Gore Files.” These consisted of police reports of gruesome crimes supposedly committed by people under the influence of cannabis.
One such crime was the murder of the Licata family in Florida in 1933. Victor Licata, a 20-year-old man, used an ax to kill his parents and three siblings. Although psychiatric evaluation indicated that he was seriously mentally ill, anti-cannabis propagandists, including Anslinger, spread the story that Licata was addicted to cannabis.
The case was so gory and reached such a wide audience that it even inspired one of the most notorious films released in the United States: the 1936 exploitation film-turned-unintentional-satire Reefer Madness.
Ever the sensationalist, Anslinger kept up the momentum of the idea that cannabis caused insanity.
“Marihuana is a shortcut to the insane asylum,” he said. “Smoke marihuana cigarettes for a month and what was once your brain will be nothing but a storehouse of horrid specters.”
The psychosis that cannabis consumption allegedly induced was a running theme in the early days of cannabis prohibition.
During the Congressional hearings for the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937, Anslinger submitted a statement titled, “Marihuana—A More Alarming Menace to Society Than All Other Habit-Forming Drugs,” co-written by Dr. Frank R. Gomila and Madeline C. Gomila. Among the many erroneous claims the authors wrote, the assertions that consuming cannabis led to disastrous psychiatric ramifications were plentiful.
From the St. Louis Star-Times of an earlier date, we find the case of a young high school student reported. A case in point is that of a young man, an intelligent high school student, now confined to an institution for the mentally diseased. His experience is entirely the result of acquiring the habit of smoking marihuana cigarettes.
During Anslinger’s testimony before Congress during the Marijuana Tax Act hearings, he also compared cannabis to drugs like opium:
“Here we have a drug that is not like opium,” he said. “Opium has all the good of Dr. Jekyll and all the evil of Mr. Hyde. This drug is entirely the monster Hyde, the harmful effect of which cannot be measured.”
Anslinger didn’t just use fear-mongering tactics in the early days of cannabis prohibition. In the 1930s, his anti-cannabis propaganda often had an element of racism.
“Colored students at the Univ[ersity] of Minn[esota] partying with (white) female students, smoking [marijuana] and getting their sympathy with stories of racial persecution. Result: pregnancy,” he wrote.
Remember: this was in the United States during the 1930s. Racism was readily accepted in the vast majority of the country. The Jim Crow Laws would continue for another 30 years. Anslinger knew exactly what he was doing.
Furthermore, he famously asserted:
There are 100,000 total marijuana smokers in the U.S., and most are Negroes, Hispanics, Filipinos and entertainers. Their Satanic music, jazz and swing result from marijuana use. This marijuana causes white women to seek sexual relations with Negroes, enterainers and others.
And of course, this next inflammatory remark:
Reefer makes darkies think they’re as good as white men.
Anslinger was far from the first to use racism as a means to sway white Americans from the plant. And it wasn’t exclusively against black people.
As early as 1910, the alleged “dangers” of cannabis were publicized in Southern states in an effort to (further) turn the public against Mexican immigrants. Unsurprisingly, these views did not die down. In “Marihuana—A More Alarming Menace to Society Than All Other Habit-Forming Drugs” the authors wrote: “The Mexicans make [cannabis] into cigarettes, which they sell at two for 25 cents, mostly to white high school students.”
An additional element of the early days of cannabis prohibition was centered on sex. Specifically, about the sexuality of white women, as well as their supposed vulnerability. This focus didn’t end with Anslinger’s remarks that cannabis consumption inspired white women to seek relationships with black men. And it wasn’t just Anslinger who made statements about the “negative” impact that cannabis had on women.
“Marihuana—A More Alarming Menace to Society Than All Other Habit-Forming Drugs” recounted a story of a young woman who smoked cannabis with her boyfriend and became so intoxicated that they eloped.
Other reports that Anslinger referenced in his testimony during the Marihuana Tax Act Congressional hearings told stories of men—under the influence of cannabis—committing rape. Anslinger himself reported on stories like this in his Gore Files. A notable example:
Two Negros took a girl fourteen years old and kept her for two days under the influence of hemp. Upon recovery she was found to be suffering from syphilis.
The anti-cannabis propaganda during the early days of prohibition reflected this fixation on the idea that cannabis promotes promiscuity. Particularly with films like Reefer Madness and Marihuana, which played into this notion. The message was clear: cannabis was responsible for ruining the virtue of women.
Final Hit: Satanic Music, Minorities and Sex: The Early Days of Cannabis Prohibition
Looking back on the early days of cannabis prohibition is certainly interesting. It can even be mildly entertaining if you are able to view it in a certain light. But while we’re able to look back and marvel at the widely distributed and accepted misinformation and outright lies, it’s important to reflect upon it as well. The ramifications of the early days of cannabis prohibition, and especially of Harry Anslinger’s relentless anti-cannabis crusade, still affect us to this day. Anti-pot activists still attempt to spread falsehoods about the plant. The racial disparity of cannabis arrests still prevails. Even as studies demonstrate that white people consume just as much weed (and sometimes more) as people of color.
As a community, we have a responsibility to push back against these early anti-cannabis efforts. We’ve come so far already. We all must work hard to prevent our society and laws from slipping backward.
The post Satanic Music, Minorities and Sex: The Early Days of Cannabis Prohibition appeared first on High Times.
1. What is CBD? What is CBD Oil?
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring constituent of industrial hemp/cannabis. Its formula is C21H30O2 and it has a molecular mass of 314.4636. It is the most abundant non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis, and is being scientifically investigated for various reasons.
CBD oil is a cannabis oil (whether derived from marijuana or industrial hemp, as the word cannabis is the latin genus name for both) that has significant amounts of cannabidiol (CBD) contained within it. Our CBD products and extracts are derived from industrial hemp, so they could be considered CBD-rich hemp oil, hemp derived CBD oil, CBD-rich cannabis oil, or plainly “hemp extracts” since they typically contain much more than just CBD. Again, cannabis doesn’t mean marijuana, but is the genus name, and general umbrella term which all forms of marijuana and hemp fall under. The form of cannabis we use for our CBD and hemp extracts is industrial hemp; we do not sell marijuana.
2. If a hemp extract is 40% cannabinoids, what’s the other 60%? What’s in your hemp extracts besides the naturally occurring cannabinoids?
Our Kentucky hemp extracts contain over 80 different phyto-cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD), CBC, CBG, CBN, etc.. In addition to the cannabinoids naturally present in our agricultural hemp extracts, there are also many other types of natural molecules and phyto-chemical compounds such as amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins (including B1, B2, B6, D), fatty acids (including omega 3 & 6), trace minerals (including iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium, potassium), beta-carotene, chlorophyll, flavanoids, ketones, nitrogenous compounds, alkanes, glycosides, pigments, water, and terpenes. The most common terpenes in our hemp extracts are Myrcene, Beta-caryophyllene, Terpinolene, Linalool, alpha-Pinene, beta-Pinene, Nerolidol og Phytol, trans-alpha-Bergamotene, Limonene/ beta-Phellandrene (Co-elution), and alpha-Humulene.
3. What’s the difference between Hemp and Marijuana?
Scientifically, industrial Hemp and Marijuana are the same plant, with a genus and species name of Cannabis Sativa. They have a drastically different genetic profile though. Industrial Hemp is always a strain of Cannabis sativa, while marijuana can be Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, or Cannabis ruderalis. The major difference is how industrial hemp has been bred compared to a marijuana form of Cannabis sativa. Typically speaking, industrial hemp is very fibrous, with long strong stalks, and barely has any flowering buds, while a marijuana strain of Cannabis sativa will be smaller, bushier, and full of flowering buds. However, newer industrial hemp varieties in the USA are being bred to have more flowers and higher yields of cannabinoids and terpenes, such as our Kentucky hemp we’re now using!
99% of the time marijuana has a high amount of THC and only a very low amount of CBD. Hemp, on the other hand, naturally has a very high amount of CBD in most instances, and only a trace amount of THC. Fortunately, the cannabinoid profile of hemp is ideal for people looking for benefits from cannabis without the ‘high.’ Hemp is used for making herbal supplements, food, fiber, rope, paper, bricks, oil, natural plastic, and so much more, whereas marijuana is usually used just recreationally, spiritually, and medicinally. The term cannabis oil can refer to either a marijuana or hemp derived oil, since marijuana and hemp are two different forms of cannabis.
In the USA the legal definition of “industrial hemp,” per Section 7606 of the Agricultural Appropriations Act of 2014, is “INDUSTRIAL HEMP — The term ‘‘industrial hemp’’ means the plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of such plant, whether growing or not, with a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis.”
4. Are hemp derived cannabinoids such as CBD as good as CBD from marijuana?
The short answer is yes. CBD is CBD, whether from marijuana or hemp. Most marijuana has a very low non-psychoactive cannabinoid profile (like CBD, CBC, CBG), so most of the time hemp would be much more preferable for anything besides THC. Marijuana is usually very high in THC (gives people the high) but usually very low in other non-psychoactive cannabinoids.
Nowadays in the USA, many farmers are growing industrial hemp flowers that are just as beautiful, odor-producing, and terpene rich as the best marijuana strains, such as our partnered farmers in Kentucky.
5. Why don’t you source your Hemp and CBD from within Colorado?
We feel that the hemp program in Kentucky is more well suited for our company in regards to growing hemp, and that because it’s 100% compliant with Section 7606 of the 2014 Farm Bill (and the 2016 Agricultural Appropriations Act), procuring it from there is perfectly legal at the federal level. Kentucky’s ecology is perfect for hemp just as it is for tobacco. The growing season is longer than in Colorado, and the soil is richer, so the quality of the hemp and the yields are better.
6. What’s the percentage of cannabinoids and CBD in your product?
Our raw extracts have varying percentages of cannabinoid and cannabidiol (CBD) content, the range being 10%-99%. Each product has a unique formulation and uses varying ratios of our extract types. Our CBD Isolate is over 99% pure CBD.
7. What is the best method of use?
For our dietary supplements we can only recommend them for internal consumption. Our CBD isolate is for research purposes only. If you don’t like the flavor of the oil supplements, you can mix with something sweet like apple sauce or honey to cut through the flavor.
8. What’s the ideal serving size for me, and how often should I take it?
There is no easy answer to this. Our starting recommended serving size is 15 drops but we generally recommend experimenting to see what feels best to you. Some prefer 5 drops, some prefer over 50 drops per day.
9. What is the safety of your hemp extracts? Are there negative side effects?
Hemp is considered by many to be generally safe. We’ve never seen or heard of any significant or negative side effects in our years in the industry. That said, we can’t rule them out. Please consult with your physician before using any dietary supplement including Hemp extract supplements.
10. Which of your CBD and hemp products should I get?
As a company who sells various dietary and food supplements, we can’t suggest any of our products for the prevention, treatment or cure of any disease or ailment.
When considering our different dietary hemp products, know that they all come in two strengths. Our Original Hemp blends (Classic Hemp Blend, Hemp Complete, Brainpower oil, & Signature Blend) all have 250+mg of cannabinoids per fluid ounce, and our concentrated blends have 1,500+mg per fluid ounce, six times the potency of our traditional oils. We’ve found that sometimes less is more, but nevertheless, some people like to take very large serving sizes of our hemp extracts.
The main difference between the four Original Blends is the additional herbal ingredients besides hemp. We suggest you research the separate components of each blend to determine which product may be most appealing to add to your dietary regimen. If you know it’s solely the hemp extract that you are looking for, with no additional ingredients, then Classic Hemp Blend or Classic Hemp 6x is what you’re looking for.
For dabbing and vaporizing or for research you can try our CBD Isolate.
THOSE WHO SUSPECT THEY MAY HAVE A DISEASE OR ARE SEEKING HELP FOR A DISEASE SHOULD CONSULT A QUALIFIED MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL.
11. Why do people use Hemp Extracts and CBD? What are the benefits and uses of CBD?
In accordance with federal regulations we cannot make health claims regarding our dietary supplement products. We can only recommend our products for general wellness.
12. Is a standard hemp seed oil the same as a high-CBD hemp extract?
Absolutely not. Standard hemp oil, which can be found very cheaply at a grocery store, is a much different product than our CO2 hemp extracts (not from seed). Standard hemp oil is produced by cold pressing the seeds, whereas our hemp extract is a supercritical CO2 extraction of the hemp plant itself, not the seeds. Hemp seed oil is considered to be a great nutritive food, but it doesn’t have the naturally occurring terpenes, cannabinoids and other components that our extracts do have.
13. Do I need to move to Colorado to get your Hemp Extracts and CBD? Where do you ship?
No. We actually source our hemp from Kentucky, as it’s legal to ship across state lines. Many people are under the impression that the only way to acquire hemp extracts and CBD for themselves or a loved one is to move to Colorado or another cannabis-friendly state. Many major news outlets are misinformed and are unfortunately spreading the idea that you can only get CBD oil in the states where medical marijuana has been legalized. This is simply not the case though. Because our extracts comes from hemp instead of marijuana, we can and do ship to all fifty states, and no medical marijuana card is needed. There are some exceptions, like with Indiana, Missouri and South Dakota we can’t sell our concentrated products due to state legislation.
We also ship to Japan, Australia, the EU, Switzerland, and Brazil. For all EU orders contact our exclusive distributor there, Cannawell.
14. Is your Hemp Extract Oil similar to Rick Simpson Hemp Oil?
Not quite. Ours are from hemp and RSHO is usually using marijuana, a different form of cannabis than industrial hemp. Our industrial hemp extracts are more standardized and will usually have a much higher content of non-psychoactive cannabinoids like CBD than one produced through the Rick Simpson method. And oils produced through his method will usually have a much higher THC content, as it’s typically marijuana that is used for RSHO.†
Generally speaking, most marijuana producers and sellers (especially on the black market) don’t test for contaminants (metals, pesticides, bacteria, etc.). Rick Simpson Hemp Oil is actually more a method of extraction than it is a specific product. People use the Rick Simpson method with hundreds of different strains of marijuana, so the THC, CBD and other cannabinoid content of the final oil is always varying greatly, depending on the cannabis the consumers are acquiring. Usually what’s used for Rick Simpson oil is a strain with an inferior CBD content (and high THC), because that’s what the vast amount of marijuana is nowadays.
15. Where do you source your hemp and CBD from?
We have partners in Kentucky who grew a dedicated plot for us this year (2016) which is being used in our products now. We also currently source from Europe but we’ll be changing that soon.
16. What kind of testing/analysis is performed on your products?
We have an industry leading quality control system, and we have third party laboratories analyze all of our hemp extracts and our final products for cannabinoid potency, heavy metals, bacterial and microbial life, mycotoxins (fungus), and pesticides.
17. What is CO2 extraction? What’s the difference between subcritical and supercritical CO2 extractions?
CO2 extraction is an extraction process that uses pressurized carbon dioxide to extract phyto-chemicals (such as CBD, CBG, or terpenes, flavonoids, etc.) from a plant. CO2 at certain temperatures and pressures acts like a solvent, without the dangers of actually being one. It is the most expensive extraction method, and is widely considered the most effective and safest plant extraction method in the world.
Many hemp and CBD companies boast about their supercritical CO2 extractions, but that’s actually only one (and perhaps an inferior) method of using a CO2 extraction machine. There are also subcritical CO2 extractions, and ‘mid-critical’, a general range between subcritical and supercritical. Subcritical (low temp, low pressure) CO2 extractions take more time and produce smaller yields than super-critical, but they retain the essential oils, terpenes, and other sensitive chemicals within the plant. Supercritical, on the other hand, is a high pressure and high temperature process that damages most terpenes and heat sensitive chemicals, but can extract much larger molecules such as lipids (omega 3 and 6), chlorophyll, and waxes. A truly full-spectrum CO2 extract includes first performing a subcritical extraction, separating the extracted oil, and then extracting the same plant material using supercritical pressure, and then homogenizing both oil extracts into one. In the essential oil industry, an extract made using this specific process is referred to as a CO2 Total.
18. What is the endocannabinoid system (ECS)?
“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a group of endogenous cannabinoid receptors located in the mammalian brain and throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems, consisting of neuromodulatory lipids and their receptors.” Wikipedia
There are two main types of receptors in the ECS, CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors are primarily located in the central nervous system and brains of mammals, and CB2 are generally found in the peripheral nervous system. There are two main cannabinoids mammals produce- 2AG and Anandamide (named after the Sanskrit term “ananda” which translates to “peace”).
For hundreds of millions of years every vertebrate on Earth has been equipped with this ECS, a crucial system in the body, and it has been known about in the scientific and medical communities since the 1980’s. However, it’s still not taught about in most medical schools.