About 1.1 percent of the worldwide population is diagnosed with schizophrenia. According to the Schizophrenia and Related Disorders Alliance of America, schizophrenia is one of the leading causes of disability in the United States, affecting 3.5 million people.
The mental health condition can erase people’s memories of their days, past and even their reality. The SRDAA states that person must have at least two of the following symptoms to be diagnosed with schizophrenia, with one of the first three listed being one a person is suffering form:
- Disorganized speech
- Disorganized or catatonic behavior
- Negative symptoms
Cannabis consumption tends to be a debated topic surrounding most mental health conditions today. This is particularly true with schizophrenia. Some believe that cannabis can lead to increased psychosis, a common symptom in schizophrenia. Meanwhile, others believe that may not be the case just yet.
Dr. Alex Dimitriu is a double board-certified in Psychiatry and Sleep Medicine and founder of Menlo Park Psychiatry & Sleep Medicine. In response to this article, Dr. Dimitriu explained what the effects of psychosis are like on a person. “Psychosis is defined as having false beliefs (often called delusions) and seeing or hearing things that are not real (hallucinations). In a psychotic state, people may appear disorganized, confused, paranoid, almost as if they were tripping on something (like LSD, or magic mushrooms).”
He also expanded on how THC is a mild hallucinogen that can lead to short-term schizophrenia but should not be long-lasting. “Believe it or not, to some degree or other many users of cannabis have experienced the “psychotic” like effects of the drug. Fortunately, this is short-lived, usually lasting hours. Most commonly, this is seen as the paranoia – thoughts like “are people watching me?” “am I going to get in trouble with the authorities?” or, “I think I’m having a panic attack and should maybe go to the ER?”
Dr. Amy Baxter, CEO of Pain Care Labs, felt differently about cannabis use and its potential to affect people. She wrote that while cannabis can be useful in a myriad of conditions from cancer to PTSD, the dopamine pain receptors targeted can lead to mania and psychosis when overstimulated. Dr. Baxter elaborated, “In fact, 10-15% of people get paranoia and hallucinations (psychosis symptoms). With certain genetic backgrounds, even a single use of cannabis can lead to a 10x greater risk of lifelong schizophrenia.”
She also recommended a 2017 review of cannabis through the centuries, noting its recommendation for more research.
Dr. Jordan Tishler is a Harvard graduate and doctor with his own practice and research and works with CannabisMD. He noted that cannabis use is used at higher rates by people with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Dr. Tishler added, “This has lead to the association of cannabis use with development or worsening of these illnesses. It’s entirely unclear whether cannabis is causing these problems or the problems lead to cannabis use. Obviously these are very different situations. Studies that try to solve this riddle are very mixed, some appear to show causation, others do not.”
Unlike other articles in this series, no patients came forward to share their experience with High Times. That said, many testimonies online detail individual experiences. From the medical professional perspective, while often short-lived, Dr. Dimitriu noted that come symptoms can worsen when using cannabis. He recalled a patient in their 20s who experienced paranoid thoughts, didn’t go to school and slept on the floor to avoid electromagnetic waves. He also noted a 50-something-year-old patient who started hearing voices after smoking a potent strain.
Dr. Tishler also offered up an example they encountered. In this case, a 65-year-old patient suffered from severe and constant physical pain and unresponsive to traditional medicine. The patient also had suffered from 40 years of mental health issues, dating back to her 20s. He explained how they came to a suitable treatment plan using cannabis.
“Ideally, we’d avoid cannabis for her, but her pain is debilitating, unresponsive to prior treatment, and her acute psychosis was long ago. In this case, I was able to devise a care plan with her vast mental health team to monitor her daily (as they were already doing) such that if cannabis made her worse, we’d know rapidly.”
He said that he “did lose sleep over her case,” but the issue worked out in this case. He also offered a counterexample. “I’ve had cases where, despite careful consideration, they did poorly and were thankfully noticed quickly.”
With such varying outcomes and the severity of the condition, Dr. Tishler recognized that cannabis could be the cause of psychosis, or increase the illness. Therefore, it is wise to avoid using cannabis if there are any signs of any such symptoms. He also addressed the problem with this solution. “The problem, of course, is that it is hard to foresee these illnesses until they strike. Since these illnesses tend to occur in late teens and early young adults, this is part of the reason for suggesting that these people avoid cannabis.”
The other responding physicians agreed with this approach. Dr. Baxter called using cannabis with this mental health condition “extremely risky.” Meanwhile, Dr. Dimitriu expanded on other substances people with schizophrenia and other conditions may want to consider avoiding.
“Certainly true with uppers – whether it is amphetamines like Adderall, or methylphenidate – Ritalin, even caffeine and energy drinks – these meds can increase levels of dopamine which can worsen agitation, and the symptoms of psychosis. Classic psychedelics should be definitely avoided – like LSD, psilocybin (magic mushrooms), DMT, and so on.”
While THC appears to be a cannabinoid medical professionals would not recommend in most schizophrenia patients, some are discussing the positive benefits of CBD.
Dr. Bill Code is a cannabis expert concerning mental conditions, including schizophrenia. His book, Solving the Brain Puzzle, addresses cannabis use. He explained how CBD led to “considerable benefit” with psychosis and schizophrenia. He came to a decision after reading a French study of high potency CBD and its equivalence to modern antipsychotics “without the rough side effects.”
Dr. Dimitriu expanded on why CBD may prove to be an effective anti-psychotic. “CBD has been shown to have numerous medicinal benefits – as a pain reducer, an anti-convulsant (anti-seizure), a sleep inducer, and has been shown to lower anxiety levels,” he said while adding that additional studies are required. He mentioned a 2012 investigation of the effects of CBD as an antipsychotic for further reading.
In the end, just with any condition, the choice falls on the patient as long as they are of a sound mind to do so. “This is not always an easy decision…careful planning and monitoring is essential to being able to avoid problems or [react] quickly if they do arise,” said Dr. Tishler.
The post Cannabis and Mental Health: Schizophrenia appeared first on High Times.
1. What is CBD? What is CBD Oil?
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring constituent of industrial hemp/cannabis. Its formula is C21H30O2 and it has a molecular mass of 314.4636. It is the most abundant non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis, and is being scientifically investigated for various reasons.
CBD oil is a cannabis oil (whether derived from marijuana or industrial hemp, as the word cannabis is the latin genus name for both) that has significant amounts of cannabidiol (CBD) contained within it. Our CBD products and extracts are derived from industrial hemp, so they could be considered CBD-rich hemp oil, hemp derived CBD oil, CBD-rich cannabis oil, or plainly “hemp extracts” since they typically contain much more than just CBD. Again, cannabis doesn’t mean marijuana, but is the genus name, and general umbrella term which all forms of marijuana and hemp fall under. The form of cannabis we use for our CBD and hemp extracts is industrial hemp; we do not sell marijuana.
2. If a hemp extract is 40% cannabinoids, what’s the other 60%? What’s in your hemp extracts besides the naturally occurring cannabinoids?
Our Kentucky hemp extracts contain over 80 different phyto-cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD), CBC, CBG, CBN, etc.. In addition to the cannabinoids naturally present in our agricultural hemp extracts, there are also many other types of natural molecules and phyto-chemical compounds such as amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins (including B1, B2, B6, D), fatty acids (including omega 3 & 6), trace minerals (including iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium, potassium), beta-carotene, chlorophyll, flavanoids, ketones, nitrogenous compounds, alkanes, glycosides, pigments, water, and terpenes. The most common terpenes in our hemp extracts are Myrcene, Beta-caryophyllene, Terpinolene, Linalool, alpha-Pinene, beta-Pinene, Nerolidol og Phytol, trans-alpha-Bergamotene, Limonene/ beta-Phellandrene (Co-elution), and alpha-Humulene.
3. What’s the difference between Hemp and Marijuana?
Scientifically, industrial Hemp and Marijuana are the same plant, with a genus and species name of Cannabis Sativa. They have a drastically different genetic profile though. Industrial Hemp is always a strain of Cannabis sativa, while marijuana can be Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, or Cannabis ruderalis. The major difference is how industrial hemp has been bred compared to a marijuana form of Cannabis sativa. Typically speaking, industrial hemp is very fibrous, with long strong stalks, and barely has any flowering buds, while a marijuana strain of Cannabis sativa will be smaller, bushier, and full of flowering buds. However, newer industrial hemp varieties in the USA are being bred to have more flowers and higher yields of cannabinoids and terpenes, such as our Kentucky hemp we’re now using!
99% of the time marijuana has a high amount of THC and only a very low amount of CBD. Hemp, on the other hand, naturally has a very high amount of CBD in most instances, and only a trace amount of THC. Fortunately, the cannabinoid profile of hemp is ideal for people looking for benefits from cannabis without the ‘high.’ Hemp is used for making herbal supplements, food, fiber, rope, paper, bricks, oil, natural plastic, and so much more, whereas marijuana is usually used just recreationally, spiritually, and medicinally. The term cannabis oil can refer to either a marijuana or hemp derived oil, since marijuana and hemp are two different forms of cannabis.
In the USA the legal definition of “industrial hemp,” per Section 7606 of the Agricultural Appropriations Act of 2014, is “INDUSTRIAL HEMP — The term ‘‘industrial hemp’’ means the plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of such plant, whether growing or not, with a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis.”
4. Are hemp derived cannabinoids such as CBD as good as CBD from marijuana?
The short answer is yes. CBD is CBD, whether from marijuana or hemp. Most marijuana has a very low non-psychoactive cannabinoid profile (like CBD, CBC, CBG), so most of the time hemp would be much more preferable for anything besides THC. Marijuana is usually very high in THC (gives people the high) but usually very low in other non-psychoactive cannabinoids.
Nowadays in the USA, many farmers are growing industrial hemp flowers that are just as beautiful, odor-producing, and terpene rich as the best marijuana strains, such as our partnered farmers in Kentucky.
5. Why don’t you source your Hemp and CBD from within Colorado?
We feel that the hemp program in Kentucky is more well suited for our company in regards to growing hemp, and that because it’s 100% compliant with Section 7606 of the 2014 Farm Bill (and the 2016 Agricultural Appropriations Act), procuring it from there is perfectly legal at the federal level. Kentucky’s ecology is perfect for hemp just as it is for tobacco. The growing season is longer than in Colorado, and the soil is richer, so the quality of the hemp and the yields are better.
6. What’s the percentage of cannabinoids and CBD in your product?
Our raw extracts have varying percentages of cannabinoid and cannabidiol (CBD) content, the range being 10%-99%. Each product has a unique formulation and uses varying ratios of our extract types. Our CBD Isolate is over 99% pure CBD.
7. What is the best method of use?
For our dietary supplements we can only recommend them for internal consumption. Our CBD isolate is for research purposes only. If you don’t like the flavor of the oil supplements, you can mix with something sweet like apple sauce or honey to cut through the flavor.
8. What’s the ideal serving size for me, and how often should I take it?
There is no easy answer to this. Our starting recommended serving size is 15 drops but we generally recommend experimenting to see what feels best to you. Some prefer 5 drops, some prefer over 50 drops per day.
9. What is the safety of your hemp extracts? Are there negative side effects?
Hemp is considered by many to be generally safe. We’ve never seen or heard of any significant or negative side effects in our years in the industry. That said, we can’t rule them out. Please consult with your physician before using any dietary supplement including Hemp extract supplements.
10. Which of your CBD and hemp products should I get?
As a company who sells various dietary and food supplements, we can’t suggest any of our products for the prevention, treatment or cure of any disease or ailment.
When considering our different dietary hemp products, know that they all come in two strengths. Our Original Hemp blends (Classic Hemp Blend, Hemp Complete, Brainpower oil, & Signature Blend) all have 250+mg of cannabinoids per fluid ounce, and our concentrated blends have 1,500+mg per fluid ounce, six times the potency of our traditional oils. We’ve found that sometimes less is more, but nevertheless, some people like to take very large serving sizes of our hemp extracts.
The main difference between the four Original Blends is the additional herbal ingredients besides hemp. We suggest you research the separate components of each blend to determine which product may be most appealing to add to your dietary regimen. If you know it’s solely the hemp extract that you are looking for, with no additional ingredients, then Classic Hemp Blend or Classic Hemp 6x is what you’re looking for.
For dabbing and vaporizing or for research you can try our CBD Isolate.
THOSE WHO SUSPECT THEY MAY HAVE A DISEASE OR ARE SEEKING HELP FOR A DISEASE SHOULD CONSULT A QUALIFIED MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL.
11. Why do people use Hemp Extracts and CBD? What are the benefits and uses of CBD?
In accordance with federal regulations we cannot make health claims regarding our dietary supplement products. We can only recommend our products for general wellness.
12. Is a standard hemp seed oil the same as a high-CBD hemp extract?
Absolutely not. Standard hemp oil, which can be found very cheaply at a grocery store, is a much different product than our CO2 hemp extracts (not from seed). Standard hemp oil is produced by cold pressing the seeds, whereas our hemp extract is a supercritical CO2 extraction of the hemp plant itself, not the seeds. Hemp seed oil is considered to be a great nutritive food, but it doesn’t have the naturally occurring terpenes, cannabinoids and other components that our extracts do have.
13. Do I need to move to Colorado to get your Hemp Extracts and CBD? Where do you ship?
No. We actually source our hemp from Kentucky, as it’s legal to ship across state lines. Many people are under the impression that the only way to acquire hemp extracts and CBD for themselves or a loved one is to move to Colorado or another cannabis-friendly state. Many major news outlets are misinformed and are unfortunately spreading the idea that you can only get CBD oil in the states where medical marijuana has been legalized. This is simply not the case though. Because our extracts comes from hemp instead of marijuana, we can and do ship to all fifty states, and no medical marijuana card is needed. There are some exceptions, like with Indiana, Missouri and South Dakota we can’t sell our concentrated products due to state legislation.
We also ship to Japan, Australia, the EU, Switzerland, and Brazil. For all EU orders contact our exclusive distributor there, Cannawell.
14. Is your Hemp Extract Oil similar to Rick Simpson Hemp Oil?
Not quite. Ours are from hemp and RSHO is usually using marijuana, a different form of cannabis than industrial hemp. Our industrial hemp extracts are more standardized and will usually have a much higher content of non-psychoactive cannabinoids like CBD than one produced through the Rick Simpson method. And oils produced through his method will usually have a much higher THC content, as it’s typically marijuana that is used for RSHO.†
Generally speaking, most marijuana producers and sellers (especially on the black market) don’t test for contaminants (metals, pesticides, bacteria, etc.). Rick Simpson Hemp Oil is actually more a method of extraction than it is a specific product. People use the Rick Simpson method with hundreds of different strains of marijuana, so the THC, CBD and other cannabinoid content of the final oil is always varying greatly, depending on the cannabis the consumers are acquiring. Usually what’s used for Rick Simpson oil is a strain with an inferior CBD content (and high THC), because that’s what the vast amount of marijuana is nowadays.
15. Where do you source your hemp and CBD from?
We have partners in Kentucky who grew a dedicated plot for us this year (2016) which is being used in our products now. We also currently source from Europe but we’ll be changing that soon.
16. What kind of testing/analysis is performed on your products?
We have an industry leading quality control system, and we have third party laboratories analyze all of our hemp extracts and our final products for cannabinoid potency, heavy metals, bacterial and microbial life, mycotoxins (fungus), and pesticides.
17. What is CO2 extraction? What’s the difference between subcritical and supercritical CO2 extractions?
CO2 extraction is an extraction process that uses pressurized carbon dioxide to extract phyto-chemicals (such as CBD, CBG, or terpenes, flavonoids, etc.) from a plant. CO2 at certain temperatures and pressures acts like a solvent, without the dangers of actually being one. It is the most expensive extraction method, and is widely considered the most effective and safest plant extraction method in the world.
Many hemp and CBD companies boast about their supercritical CO2 extractions, but that’s actually only one (and perhaps an inferior) method of using a CO2 extraction machine. There are also subcritical CO2 extractions, and ‘mid-critical’, a general range between subcritical and supercritical. Subcritical (low temp, low pressure) CO2 extractions take more time and produce smaller yields than super-critical, but they retain the essential oils, terpenes, and other sensitive chemicals within the plant. Supercritical, on the other hand, is a high pressure and high temperature process that damages most terpenes and heat sensitive chemicals, but can extract much larger molecules such as lipids (omega 3 and 6), chlorophyll, and waxes. A truly full-spectrum CO2 extract includes first performing a subcritical extraction, separating the extracted oil, and then extracting the same plant material using supercritical pressure, and then homogenizing both oil extracts into one. In the essential oil industry, an extract made using this specific process is referred to as a CO2 Total.
18. What is the endocannabinoid system (ECS)?
“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a group of endogenous cannabinoid receptors located in the mammalian brain and throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems, consisting of neuromodulatory lipids and their receptors.” Wikipedia
There are two main types of receptors in the ECS, CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors are primarily located in the central nervous system and brains of mammals, and CB2 are generally found in the peripheral nervous system. There are two main cannabinoids mammals produce- 2AG and Anandamide (named after the Sanskrit term “ananda” which translates to “peace”).
For hundreds of millions of years every vertebrate on Earth has been equipped with this ECS, a crucial system in the body, and it has been known about in the scientific and medical communities since the 1980’s. However, it’s still not taught about in most medical schools.